TES | Thermal Evaporation

thermal evaporation source component

Technical Specification

Boat Volume
1cc to 5cc
Temperature Range
50-2200°C (material depandant
Flux Monitoring
DC, 600W.15Kw optional

Deposition Technique

Thermal evaporation sources are generally used for basic thin film deposition processes.  The evaporant material is placed in a conductive boat or alternatively a crucible held in a resistive coil. The boat or coil is heated by passing a high electrical current through it. As the temperature of the boat rises, the material in the boat begins to evaporate. The temperature, and hence the evaporation rate of the material, is controlled by the amount of applied current.

One important advantage of thermal evaporation is that no process gas is required so the process can be performed under very high vacuum conditions resulting in very few impurities being incorporated into the deposited films.


The Korvus TES thermal boat sources allow quick removal of the sources to allow replenishment of the evaporant material. Boats and filaments can also be easily and rapidly replaced.

The TES sources are available as a single-source per flange unit. Optionally, thermocouples may be mounted to monitor the boat temperature. Each source can be equipped with a manual or automatic shutter.

Up to five single sources may be accommodated in one system. The sources can also be used in conjunction with other techniques such as sputtering, e-beam deposition and low-temperature sources.

thermal evaporation source component

Each pocket in the source is equipped with a flux monitoring plate, which captures the small fraction of ions in the evaporant beam and which is proportional to the overall evaporation rate. This measurement is highly sensitive and allows sub-monolayer films to be grown accurately while also coping with higher rates. The TAU-4 source uses one monitoring plate for each of its 4 independent pockets allowing independent rate monitoring, even when co-evaporating.

The sources accept either rods of conducting target materials or crucibles which will can hold either metallic or insulating materials (for advice on the correct choice, please contact Korvus).