Korvus Technology

Vacuum Deposition Coating: Thin Film Vacuum Coating

When we talk about vacuum deposition coating, we are referring to a process of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a material through a vacuum environment [1]. This technique is employed for multiple purposes such as to improve the optical, conductive, and corrosion resistance properties of the base material.

One of the commonly used methods in this process is the PVD coating or Physical Vapor Deposition, alongside other techniques such as thermal evaporation and sputtering. In this article, we will discuss the different aspects of vacuum deposition coating, including processes, methods, techniques, advantages, and popular applications.

What is Vacuum Deposition Coating?

Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface. These processes operate at pressures well below atmospheric pressure (i.e., in a vacuum), although this is slowly changing [2].

A key aspect of this is thermal deposition, where the coating material is heated until it evaporates and then allowed to condense onto the substrate. The deposited layers can range from a thickness of one atom up to millimeters, forming freestanding structures. Multiple layers of different materials can be deposited to form complex structures.

How Does Vacuum Deposition Coating Work?

Vacuum deposition coating is a process used in material science to deposit layers of material onto a substrate. It’s often used in the production of semiconductors, solar panels, and various electronic components. The process involves several key steps:

  • Vacuum creation: The process starts by creating a vacuum in a chamber to eliminate air and other gases. This is necessary because these gases can interfere with the deposition process, causing contamination or preventing the coating material from adhering properly to the substrate.
  • Substrate preparation: The object that is to be coated, known as the substrate, is placed in the vacuum chamber. In some cases, the substrate might need to be cleaned or otherwise prepared before the deposition process can begin.
  • Material evaporation or sputtering: The material to be deposited is either evaporated or sputtered. In evaporation, the material is heated until it turns into a vapor. In gold sputtering, for instance, ions are used to knock particles off of a gold “target” material. These particles then become the material that will be deposited onto the substrate [3].
  • Material deposition: The evaporated or sputtered material travels across the vacuum chamber and settles on the substrate, forming a thin film. Because there are no air molecules to interfere, the coating material can travel in straight lines and create a very uniform layer.
  • Cool down and venting: After the deposition process is complete, the system is allowed to cool down before the vacuum is broken and the chamber is vented to the atmosphere.

What Are Popular Vacuum Deposition Coating Techniques?

There are several types of vacuum deposition coating techniques, including:

  • Physical vapor deposition (PVD): This is a widely used vacuum deposition coating technique. This process entails vaporizing the material to be coated in a vacuum environment. The vaporized atoms or molecules then travel through the vacuum chamber to the substrate where they condense to form a thin film deposition. PVD can be further classified into various methods such as thermal evaporation, electron-beam deposition, and magnetron sputtering.
  • Chemical vapor deposition (CVD): This is another popular vacuum deposition coating technique that involves a chemical reaction to deposit thin films. In the CVD process, the precursor gas is introduced to a heated substrate where it decomposes and forms a solid film. CVD is advantageous because it permits the deposition of coatings of uniform thickness and composition over large areas.

When considering the choice between PVD vs CVD, one must take into account the specific requirements of the application. Each technique has its advantages and limitations, and the selection often depends on the desired properties of the final product.

What Are the Advantages of Vacuum Deposition Coating?

Vacuum deposition coatings have excellent optical properties that make them perfect for use in the manufacture of lenses and mirrors. The thin film coating enhances the reflectivity and transmission properties of the base material which makes it suitable for use in electronic displays, solar panels, and optical coatings.

Thin film vacuum coatings have excellent corrosion resistance properties, which make them suitable for use in harsh environments. The coating provides an additional layer of protection to the base material, improves its chemical stability, and prevents rust formation.

Thin film coatings can also enhance the electrical conductivity of the base material. The vacuum deposition process can deposit conductive materials such as metals that improve the electrical conductivity of the substrate. The process is also useful in patterning conductive films like electrodes and interconnects, which are used in electronic devices.

What Are the Applications of Vacuum Deposition Coating?

Vacuum deposition coatings are used extensively in thin-film solar cell manufacturing. The layer deposition process enhances the conductivity and light harvesting properties of the solar cell, which improves its efficiency. It also increases the light transmission and reflection property of the solar cell, which makes it more durable and resistant to environmental degradation.

Vacuum deposition coatings are used in the production of electronic devices such as microchips, LEDs, and solar cells. The process is useful in coating the metal patterns, which are essential for the device’s proper functioning. The thin-film deposition process is also used to manufacture thin-film transistors, which are used in flexible displays and sensors.

The vacuum deposition process is also useful in creating decorative coatings, which are used in a variety of applications such as jewelry, automotive finishes, and architectural elements. The process allows the deposition of metallic, ceramic, and organic coatings, which can be customized to create desired patterns and finishes according to the end-user’s requirement.

One example of the vacuum deposition process in practice is the applications of electron beam evaporation in the creation of optical coatings for laser technology. In this process, an electron beam is used to heat the material, which then evaporates and deposits on the substrate to create a thin film with excellent reflectivity properties.

Vacuum Deposition Coating: Frequently Asked Questions


What is thin film vacuum coating?

Thin film vacuum coating is a process of depositing a thin layer of material on a surface by evaporating or sputtering the material in a low-pressure environment.

What is vacuum deposition?

Vacuum deposition is the process of depositing a thin layer of material on a surface in a low-pressure environment. There are various methods of vacuum deposition, including evaporation, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

What is the difference between vapor and sputter deposition?

Vapor deposition involves heating a material until it vaporizes and then allowing the vapor to condense onto a surface to form a thin film. Sputter deposition involves bombarding a material with ions, causing atoms to be ejected from the surface and deposited onto a surface to form a thin film.

What is PVD?

PVD stands for physical vapor deposition, which is a vacuum deposition process that involves evaporating or sputtering a material in a low-pressure environment to create a thin film.

What is chemical vapor deposition (CVD)?

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a vacuum deposition process that involves the chemical decomposition of a precursor gas to form a solid thin film on a surface.

What is ion bombardment in vacuum deposition?

Ion bombardment in vacuum deposition involves bombarding a surface with ions prior to the deposition of a thin film. This can help to clean the surface and improve the adhesion of the thin film.

What is reactive deposition?

Reactive deposition is a vacuum deposition process that involves the reaction of a precursor gas with a surface to form a solid thin film. This process is often used to deposit films with specific chemical compositions and properties.

What are some common vacuum coating technologies?

Some common vacuum coating technologies include physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), spray coating, and plating.

What are the factors that affect thin film properties in vacuum deposition?

The factors that affect thin film properties in vacuum deposition include the deposition environment (pressure, temperature, gas composition), the chemical composition of the film material, the mean free path of the deposited atoms, and the bombardment of the surface during deposition.

What is plasma-enhanced CVD?

Plasma-enhanced CVD is a variant of chemical vapor deposition that involves the use of plasma to increase the reaction rate between the precursor gas and surface, leading to faster and more efficient deposition of the thin film [4].

What are some applications of vacuum deposition coating, particularly thin film coatings?

Thin film coatings produced by vacuum deposition are used in a wide range of applications, including wear-resistant coatings for mechanical components, optical coatings for lenses and mirrors, and coatings for aerospace and defense applications.


[1] Schulz, U., & Kaiser, N. (2006). Vacuum coating of plastic optics. Progress in surface science, 81(8-9), 387-401.

[2] Chun, D. M., Kim, M. H., Lee, J. C., & Ahn, S. H. (2008). A nano-particle deposition system for ceramic and metal coating at room temperature and low vacuum conditions. International Journal of precision engineering and manufacturing, 9(1), 51-53.

[3] Williams, P. (1979). The sputtering process and sputtered ion emission. Surface Science, 90(2), 588-634.

[4] Hess, D. W. (1984). Plasma‐enhanced CVD: Oxides, nitrides, transition metals, and transition metal silicides. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 2(2), 244-252.